HCSR04 is an Ultrasonic ranging module which consists of a transmitter,receiver and control circuit. It has four pins for VCC, GND, Trigger and Echo.You can easily interface it with micrcontrollers and Arduino boards.
The basic principle of work is:
(1) Using IO trigger for at least 10us high level signal,
(2) The Module automatically sends eight 40 kHz and detect whether there is a
pulse signal back.
(3) IF the signal back, through high level , time of high output IO duration is
the time from sending ultrasonic to returning.
Test distance = (high level time×velocity of sound (340M/S) / 2,
Working Voltage DC 5 V
Working Current 15mA
Working Frequency 40Hz
Max Range 4m
Min Range 2cm
Measuring Angle 15 degree
Trigger Input Signal 10uS TTL pulse
Echo Output Signal Input TTL lever signal and the range in proportion